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Securing a stable supply of critical raw metals

of metal among the rare metals, but in practice, rare earth is a general term for 17 metals including 15 lanthanide elements. - Efforts and issues for the securement of rare-earth resources-. In the early 21st century, metal prices soared due to the economic development of newly industrialized countries. Moreover, a rare- earth  ...


A historical geography of rare earth elements: From discovery to the

Historical geography. Geology. Politics. Cold war. A B S T R A C T. This article presents a historical geography of rare earth elements from their discovery to the atomic age .... 21st century geopolitical disputes, a historical geographical analysis reveals .... policy and geology co-evolve in particular political economic contexts.


Rare Earth Elements and National Security

The Council on Foreign Relations takes no institutional positions on policy issues and has no ... But even in the apparently most-dangerous case of rare earth elements, the problem rapidly ...... Technology, “Rare Earth Minerals and 21st Century Industry” 111th Congress, March 16, 2010.; U.S. Government Accountability.


Policy Brief

key public policy issues facing Canada today. We hope this analysis will raise public ... that envisaged the rare earths as “the oil of the twenty-first century.”3 ... es 91 per cent of rare earth elements from China, three per cent from France, three per cent from Japan, one per cent from. Russia and two percent from other nations ...


Earth and Planetary Sciences EARTH 102-6: Winter Quarter 2007

Professor: Dr. Steve Jacobsen, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Northwestern University http://sites.northwestern.edu/jacobsen. Summary: Earth science encompasses the geology, chemistry, biology, and physics of our planet, while appreciating its beauty. Environmental degradation, natural resources, energy, ...


Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight

Apr 25, 2012 ... Secretary of Defense conduct an assessment of rare earth supply chain issues and develop a plan to address any ... against China because of China's restrictive policies on rare earths and other minerals. Given DOD's .... Absence of the Study of Rare Earth Application Sciences in Most U.S. Colleges and.


Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight

Mar 31, 2011 ... Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, .... In addition to requiring DOD to assess rare earth supply chain vulnerability issues, Congress may ...... hearing on Rare Earth Minerals and 21st Century Industry, March 16, 2010, http://democrats.science.house.gov/Media/.


China's Rare Earths Production Forecasting and Sustainable

Jun 10, 2017 ... same time, as an exhaustible resource, the sustainable development of rare earth elements has received extensive ... production trends based on a Hubbert model, and propose some policy recommendations for different countries ..... Hubbert peak in the middle of the 21st century, production will decline.


A 21st Century Scramble: South Africa, China and the Rare Earth

Mar 15, 2012 ... present topical, incisive analyses, offering a variety of perspectives on key policy issues in. Africa and beyond. ... The paper analyses the peculiar structure of the rare earth elements (REE) industry, a sector dominated by China ... Government of China Ministry of Science and Technology. Nd neodymium.


GSA Testimony Geological Society of America National Science

Apr 28, 2017 ... geoscience research and education at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and National. Aeronautics and ... The Geological Society of America (GSA) urges Congress to provide the National Science. Foundation ... Recent studies have shown that rare earth elements are essential to the production,.


Rare Earth Elements

May 2, 2008 ... Reserves, Production and Supply. Rare Earth Elements- Reserves. Production of Rare Earth Elements. Supply of Rare Earth Elements. 21. 21. 25. 29. 3 .... The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) production in China raises the vital issue ... these policies have not been completely successful so far.



May 25, 2017 ... the USGS plays a vital role in understanding and documenting mineral and energy resources that underpin ... addition to underpinning the science activities and decisions of the Department of the Interior, ... shown that rare earth elements are essential to the production, sustainment, and operation of.


International strategic minerals inventory summary report-rare-earth

"Prepared as a cooperative effort among earth-science and mineral-resource agencies of ... Supt. of Docs. no.: II9.4/2:930N. I. Earths, Rare. 2. Strategic materials. I. Christiansen, Grey. II. Title. III. Series. TN490.A2J33. 1993. 333.8' 5494-dc20. 93-35407. CIP ..... oxides in a format designed to benefit policy analysts and.


Heavy Rare Earths, Permanent Magnets, and Renewable Energies

rare earth industrial policies combined with its own growing demand for rare earths have caused widespread concern. ... But what many observers of the “rare earth problem” overlook is that China also dominates in ... 1. Introduction. In past years, many policy makers, scientists and other interested parties have urged.


Study on Rare Earths and Their Recycling

Financial issues. 115. 12.2.8. Legal framework. 116. 12.2.9. Large scale implementation. 117. 12.3. Strategy for enabling a more efficient use of rare earth and ... of rare earths per volume in China in t REO in 2008. (Chen 2010). 65. Figure 20. Global wind power capacities in June 2010 (WWEA 2010b). 69. Figure 21.

Rare earths study_Oeko-Institut_Jan 2011.pdf

Peak Neodymium - Material Constraints for Future Wind Power

considered as one of the most critical elements in the rare earth family in the development of modern society. ... Keywords: Sustainable Development, Peak Neodymium, Renewable Energy, Material Constraint, Wind Power,. China Policies. Yiying Zhang, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, SE- ...


Critical Materials Strategy, this report

Dec 23, 2011 ... This report examines the role of rare earth metals and other materials in the clean energy economy. It is ... methodology used was adapted from one developed by the National Academy of Sciences. .... House Office of Science and Technology Policy has been examining issues including market risk, critical.


Transforming natural resources into industrial advantage: the case

AbsTrACT: This paper analyzes the development of China's rare earths industry, emphasiz- ing the role of state technological initiatives in the country's transition from rare earth ex- porter to large industrial .... 417-18). us industrial policy in the 19th century was ubiquitous, ranging from high in- dustrial tariffs to public ...


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RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND STRATEGIC MINERAL POLICY. THE HAGUE CENTRE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES (HCSS) AND TNO. REPORT NOŕöôõôĄôö. ISBN/EAN: 978-94-91040-20-7. Authors: Jaakko Kooroshy, Rem Korteweg, Marjolein de Ridder. The authors would like to thank Jelena Petrovic, Janneke Wouda ...


New potential source of rare earth elements

Mineral security is now considered one of the key issues of the 21st century ( Szama³ek. 2011a, b; Galos et al. ... for heavy rare earth elements (HREE's) is negative in the US and many other industrialized countries. This offers an ... The research was conducted through cooperation between the Faculty of Geology of Warsaw ...